Hydrological Basics

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In order to be able to take relations and interactions into consideration a simulation model for river basing management needs to represent all relevant objects and processes within the natural system. In modelling this is implemented through system elements. In order to model different systems the following elements are needed:

Water-power plants are not a system element themselves they occur in combination with other elements. In order to function a water-power plant requires a reservoir. If the water-power plant is a run of river power plant at a certain channel cross-section this section of a channel should be defined as a reservoir.

The content of the following table gives an overview of the most important inputs and outputs as well as the characteristics of each element.


Element important Inputs/Loads Characteristics Element Output
Rural Catchment
  • rainfall
  • temperature
  • evaporation
  • characteristic soil parameters
  • run-off generation
  • discharge distribution
  • run-off concentration
  • ...
  • surface run-off
  • base flow
  • total discharge
  • ...
Urban Catchments
  • rainfall
  • inhabitants / industry and other businesses
  • polutants
  • fraction of impervious areas
  • run-off generation
  • discharge distribution
  • run-off concentration
  • ...
  • wet weather flow
  • dry weather flow
  • total discharge
  • ...
Individual discharges
  • water inflow into the system
  • discharge
Transport elements
  • inflow
  • translation
  • retention
  • discharge
Consumer
  • inflow
  • consumer characteristics
  • additional inflow from other areas
  • flow back into the system
  • flow back into the system
  • additional inflow
  • total discharge
Branching points
  • inflow
  • distribution specification
  • two outflows
Reservoirs
  • Dams
  • detention reservoir
  • rain water retention basin
  • inflow

optional:

  • rainfall
  • evaporation
  • Speicherinhaltskurve
  • Speicheroberflächenkurve
  • Leistungsfähigkeit der Betriebseinrichtungen
  • Betriebsregeln
  • (Versickerungsverhalten)
  • ...
  • Abgaben
  • Speicherinhalt
  • Wasserstand
Storm-water overflow
  • inflow
  • distribution specification
  • two outflows
storm-water overflow basin
  • inflow
  • reservoir/basin content specifications
  • two outflows

Tabelle 1: List of system elements including their most important characteristics and methods